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Protein Cross-Linking & Protein Modification

Download the Crosslinkers Handbook & Selection Guide            Download the Protein Labeling & Conjugation Handbook
 

G-Biosciences offer a wide range of tools for protein cross-linking and protein modification applications.  These reagents are designed to reduce reaction optimization, set-up, and procedure development. Our high-quality reagents help researchers consistently achieve the protein cross-linking and protein modification results they require. 

Protein Cross-Linkers

Protein cross-linking or bioconjugation is the process of creating covalent bonds between two or more molecules. Cross-linkers may be divided into two general categories, homobifunctional and heterobifunctional.

A variety of homobifunctional cross-linkers such as BSOCOES, DSS, DST, Sulfo DST, and DTSSP are available. Homobifunctional cross-linkers have two identical reactive ends and are used in one-step reactions.

Heterobifunctional cross-linkers have two different reactive ends and are used in two-step sequential reactions. Primary amine + sulfhydryl reactive heterobifunctional cross-linkers MBS, Sulfo MBS, GMBS, sulfo GMBS, EMCH and others are available. The primary amine + carboxyl reactive cross-linker EDC is also offered. 

Also available are a large selection of photoreactive cross-linkers including ABH, APG, NHS-ASA, Sulfo SAND, and many others. For additional information about protein cross-linkers download our free handbook.

Protein Modification

G-Biosciences provide several protein reduction and modification reagents. Reduce stable disulfide bonds in less than 5 minutes at room temperature with Protein-S-S-Reductant™. Several other reducing agents are also available including, β-mercaptoethanol, DTT, Immobilized Reductant, Ellman’s Reagent, and many others. 

The alkylation of protein thiol groups protects reduced thiols from forming, or reforming after reduction, disulfide bonds or bridges. A selection of alkylation reagents are offered including 4-Vinylpyridine and OneQuant™ Iodoacetamide.

Proteolytic mapping is an effective method for identifying interaction sites between two or more proteins or protein subunits. A variety of reagents to facilitate this technique are available including the arginine specific endopeptidase SG-Arginine-C™, the serine endopeptidase SG-Chymotrypsin™, the serine endopeptidase SG-Glutamic-C™, and the highly specific serine protease SG-Lysine-C™.  Also available is the chemically methylated, TPCK treated affinity purified Mass Spectrometry Grade Trypsin.  Our trypsin is available as bovine or porcine and unlike other trypsin preparations, our Mass Spectrometry Grade Trypsin is highly stable.  As a result, it can be stored for a long period of time without any loss of activity.

Site selective modification of amino acid side chains is an important tool for analyzing natural systems, creating novel therapeutic conjugates, and understanding protein function. These modifications may inhibit side chain interactions or modify the charge to create more favorable reaction conditions. A variety of amino acid side chain modifiers are available from G-Biosciences, some of these agents include: the derivatizing agent DNFB for free thiols or alkylating, citraconic anyhdride which reacts with primary amines and blocks them by creating and amide linkage and a terminal carboxylateSATA which adds protected sulfhydryls to primary amines, Sulfo NHS which converts carboxyl groups to amine reactive sulfo NHS esters, and many more.

In addition to our protein cross-linking and protein modification reagents, a variety of accessories including SpinOUT™ Columns, Optimizer Buffer™, Tube-O-Reactor™, and Tube-O-DIALYZER™ are available to ensure researchers achieve optimal results.

1,4 Dithiothreitol (DTT) is a small molecule reducing agent, also known as Cleland’s reagent. G-Biosciences DTT is a high quality proteomic grade DTT and is supplied in various sizes, including a OneQuant™ version. The OneQuant™ format features 40 vials of 7.7mg DTT for conven..
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EDC is a heterobifunctional, water-soluble, zero-length carbodiimide crosslinker that is used to couple carboxyl groups to primary amines. EDC activates carboxyl groups first and forms amine reactive O-acylisourea imtermediate that spontaneously reacts with primary amines to form an amide bond and i..
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Ethylene glycol bis(succinimidyl succinate)   Ideal for receptor ligand crosslinking   Features Molecular Weight: 456.36 Spacer Arm (Å): 16.1 Reactive Toward: Primary Amines Membrane Permeable: YES Water Soluble: NO Cleavable/ Reversible: Hydroxylamine   ..
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5,5'-dithio-bis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB)   Ellman's reagent is a versatile, water-soluble compound for quantifying free sulfhydryl groups in solution. It reacts with a free sulfhydryl group to yield a mixed disulfide and 2-nitro-5-thiobenzoic acid (NTB), a measurable yellow colore..
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N-(ε-Maleimidocaproic acid) hydrazide   Features Molecular Weight: 225.24 Spacer Arm (Å): 11.8 Reactive Toward: Sulfhydryl + Carbohydrate Membrane Permeable: Not tested  Water Soluble: NO Cleavable/ Reversible: NO    ..
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N-(ε-Maleimidocaproyloxy) succinimide ester   Features Molecular Weight: 308.29 Spacer Arm (Å): 9.4 Reactive Toward: Primary Amine + Sulfhydryl Membrane Permeable: YES Water Soluble: NO Cleavable/ Reversible: NO    ..
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N-γ-Maleimidobutyryloxysuccinimide ester     Features Molecular Weight: 280.23 Spacer Arm (Å): 6.8 Reactive Toward: Primary Amine + Sulfhydryl Membrane Permeable: YES Water Soluble: NO Cleavable/ Reversible: NO    ..
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A proteomic grade iodoacetamide in two different quantities. Iodoacetamide is supplied in 5gm bulk quantities or in the OneQuant™ format.   OneQuant™ Iodoacetamide OneQuant™ iodoacetamide are single aliquots of iodoacetamide that eliminate the need for weighing, preventing ..
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Maleimide PEG succinimidyl carboxymethyl   Features Molecular Weight: ~3400 Reactive Toward: Primary Amine + Sulfhydryl  Membrane Permeable: Not tested  Water Soluble: NO Cleavable/ Reversible: NO    ..
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m-Maleimidobenzoyl-N-hydroxysuccinimide ester   Ideal for hapten-carrier protein, toxin-antibody, enzyme-antibody crosslinking   Features Molecular Weight: 314.25 Spacer Arm (Å): 9.9 Reactive Toward: Primary Amine + Sulfhydryl  Membrane Permeable: YES ..
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N-Hydroxysuccinimidyl-4-azidosalicyclic acid   Features Molecular Weight: 276.21 Spacer Arm (Å): 8.0 Reactive Toward: Primary Amines Membrane Permeable: YES Water Soluble: NO Cleavable/ Reversible: NO    ..
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HPG (p-hydroxyphenylglyoxal) reacts to specifically modify arginine residues under mild conditions to yield spectrophotometrically measurable signal for amino acid detection.   Features of HPG: • Arginine-specific—reacts specifically with arginine residues under mild conditions (p..
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