The conjugation and modification reactions used to cross-link proteins or couple labels to proteins, such as biotin, enzymes, and fluorescent dyes, require certain conditions, including pH and chemical composition, for optimal conjugation. Many common buffers routinely used in laboratories have an inhibitory effect on conjugation reactions, for example Tris buffers inhibit coupling to amines.
G-Biosciences has prepared six reaction specific buffers that provide the optimal conditions for protein labeling, modification, and cross reaction. The table below highlights the reaction each buffer is specific for:
|Optimizer Buffer™||Reaction Type||Reactive Group|
|I||Amine & Photoreactive Reactions||NHS-ester & imidoester groups|
|II||Sulfhydryl Reactions||Iodoacetyl groups|
|III||Sulfhydryl Reactions||Maleimides & pyridyl sulfides|
|Carbohydrate Reactions||Hydrazide groups|
|VI||Amine Reactions||Glyoxal groups|
|VII||Maleimide Conjugation||Sulfhydryl group|
|VIII||Citraconic Modification||Primary amine|
These buffers contain optimized concentration of buffering agents, pH, and other cofactors for specific reactions. Simply exchange the buffer of your sample with a suitable Optimizer Buffer™ and you are ready for efficient reaction. Use of Tube-O-DIALYZER™ is recommended for buffer exchange and optimal reaction results.
|Material Safety Data Sheet|
|Protein Cross-Linking Handbook||A detailed guide to protein cross-linkers and their reactions.|
|Protein Labeling & Conjugation|