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Labeling & Conjugation

G-Biosciences offer a vast array of products for protein labeling and conjugations. Both fluorescent and biotin labeling kits are available as well as products for agarose conjugation and accessories. 

Fluorescent dyes have become a common tool in laboratories for the visualization and studying of proteins, whether they are attached directly to the protein of interest or to antibodies specific for the protein of interest. 

G-Biosciences researchers have developed two kits for the rapid and efficient labeling of proteins, including antibodies, with a fluorescent green (FITC) or red ((5/6) TAMRA-SE) dye.  Each kit is supplied with five of our single-use OneQuant™ fluorescent reagents that protect the dyes from exposure to light and minimize hands-on time.  The following evaluates labeling of two different proteins with fluorescent dyes.


HOOK-Biotin kits come with all the necessary reagents and equipment for optimization of reaction conditions, efficient labeling, removal of unbound biotin and quantification of biotin labeling.  In addition to highly efficient labeling, the HOOK-Biotin kits offer the advantage of being supplied with micro dialysis units and a specific Optimizer Buffer.  These greatly simplify the labeling process and ensure high levels of biotin labeling.


Download the Protein Labeling & Conjugation Handbook

Avidin, an egg-white protein is a tetrameric biotin binding protein. It is highly cationic glycoprotein with molecular weight of around 66kD. The protein contains four identical units, each of it binds to biotin with high specificity and affinity. The dissociation constant (KD) of avidin-biotin comp..
Haptens are small molecules such as peptides that are not immunogenic but can bind to antibodies of appropriate specificity (hapten-specific antibodies). Although haptens are incomplete immunogens, they can be made fully immunogenic by coupling them with suitable carrier proteins. Some of the common..
Phycobiliproteins are fluorescent proteins obtained from cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algae. The fluorescence of these proteins is very high, when compared to chemical fluorescent probes, such as fluorescein and rhodamine. R-Phycoerythrin (R-PE) is a phycobiliprotein derived from Porphyra tener..
Streptavidin is a non-glycosylated 52.8 kD tetrameric protein, which binds to biotin and is obtained from the bacteria Streptoimyces avidinii. When compared to Avidin, Streptavidin exhibits less non-specific binding than avidin.  The dissociation constant (KD) of Streotavidin-biotin complex is ..
Immobilized Biotin Resin is designed for the high affinity chromatography purifications of avidin, streptavidin and Neutravidin protein.  The resin consists of biotin coupled to 6% cross-linked agarose.    Biotin, a 244 Dalton vitamin (Vitamin H) molecule, exhibits an extraordinary ..
The conjugation and modification reactions used to cross-link proteins or couple labels to proteins, such as biotin, enzymes, and fluorescent dyes, require certain conditions, including pH and chemical composition, for optimal conjugation. Many common buffers routinely used in laboratories have an i..
Protein A/G Complete Antibody Clean Up is designed for complete removal of stabilizers such as BSA, gelatin and the amine buffers that interfere with downstream application such as labeling and conjugation. The kit also purifies IgGs from serum, plasma and ascites. Protein A/G Complete Antibody Cl..
Sodium metaperiodate, or sodium m-periodate, is a mild oxidant that is routinely used for the conversion of cis-glycol groups in carbohydrates to reactive aldehdye groups (Figure 1).  The reactive aldehyde groups are used in chemical conjugation procedures or detection of carbohydrates.  F..
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