Carrier Proteins

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For the successful generation of antibodies
 
The use of peptides for the generation of antibodies against specific peptides has become an essential tool in proteomic research.

A crucial step in using peptides as antigens is their coupling to carrier proteins. Peptides are designed to be good epitopes by themselves; however they fail to elicit a strong antibody response. The reason for this is that the epitopes are able to bind to the B-cells, but are too small to contain additional motifs required to associate with class II molecules and T-cell receptors. The carrier proteins, once coupled to the peptides, provide these additional motifs and generate a strong antibody response.

The most common carrier proteins are bovine serum albumin (BSA; 67kDa) and keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH; 4.5x105-1.3x107Da). In addition, we offer HyperCarrier, a cationized BSA that has been treated with ethylene diamine, which substitutes anionic carboxyl groups with cationic aminoethyl-amide groups. The use of cationized BSA is known to elicit greater immunogenic response compared to normal BSA (1-3).

The carrier proteins are coupled to haptens, including peptides and small proteins, with the use of protein cross-linkers. For a full range of protein cross-linkers and accessories, see the "Modifications & Cross-Linking" section.

All three carrier proteins are also offered as activated carrier proteins, named as ActiveHOOK™. ActiveHOOK™ carrier proteins have been pre-activated with the heterobifunctional protein cross linker sulfoSMCC and therefore are ready for the addition of cysteine containing peptides or proteins for a simple one step reaction.
 
 

1. Muckerheide, A., et al. (1987) J. Immunol. 138: 833.

2. Muckerheide, A., et al. (1987) J. Immunol. 138: 2800.

3. Domen, P.L., et al. (1987) J. Immunol. 139: 3195.

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ActiveHOOK™ BSA

ActiveHOOK™ BSA is maleimide activated BSA, by the addition of sulfoSMCC cross-linker. The ActiveHOOK™ BSA rapidly couples to free sulfhydryl groups on peptides and proteins. This act..

ActiveHOOK™ HyperCarrier™

ActiveHOOK™ HyperCarrier™ is maleimide activated HyperCarrier™, by the addition of sulfoSMCC cross-linker. The ActiveHOOK™ HyperCarrier™ rapidly couples to free..

ActiveHOOK™ KLH

ActiveHOOK™ KLH is maleimide activated by the addition of sulfoSMCC cross-linker. The ActiveHOOK™ KLH rapidly couples to free sulfhydryl groups on peptides and proteins. This act..

Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA)

Bovine serum albumin is a single polypeptide of 67kDa and consists of 59 lysine residues, of which 30-35 have primary amines that can react with crosslinkers for the coupling of peptides.   ..

HyperCarrier™

HyperCarrier™ is normal BSA that has been treated with ethylene diamine, which substitutes anionic carboxyl groups with cationic aminoethyl-amide groups.   Researchers were able to de..

KLH

Keyhole limpet hemocyanin is a widely used carrier protein due to its large molecular mass (4.5x105-1.3x107Da aggregates) and large number of primary amines that can react with cross-linkers for the c..