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Protein Cross-Linking & Protein Modification

Download the Crosslinkers Handbook & Selection Guide            Download the Protein Labeling & Conjugation Handbook

G-Biosciences offer a wide range of tools for protein cross-linking and protein modification applications.  These reagents are designed to reduce reaction optimization, set-up, and procedure development. Our high-quality reagents help researchers consistently achieve the protein cross-linking and protein modification results they require. 

Protein Cross-Linkers

Protein cross-linking or bioconjugation is the process of creating covalent bonds between two or more molecules. Cross-linkers may be divided into two general categories, homobifunctional and heterobifunctional.

A variety of homobifunctional cross-linkers such as BSOCOES, DSS, DST, Sulfo DST, and DTSSP are available. Homobifunctional cross-linkers have two identical reactive ends and are used in one-step reactions.

Heterobifunctional cross-linkers have two different reactive ends and are used in two-step sequential reactions. Primary amine + sulfhydryl reactive heterobifunctional cross-linkers MBS, Sulfo MBS, GMBS, sulfo GMBS, EMCH and others are available. The primary amine + carboxyl reactive cross-linker EDC is also offered. 

Also available are a large selection of photoreactive cross-linkers including ABH, APG, NHS-ASA, Sulfo SAND, and many others. For additional information about protein cross-linkers download our free handbook.

Protein Modification

G-Biosciences provide several protein reduction and modification reagents. Reduce stable disulfide bonds in less than 5 minutes at room temperature with Protein-S-S-Reductant™. Several other reducing agents are also available including, β-mercaptoethanol, DTT, Immobilized Reductant, Ellman’s Reagent, and many others. 

The alkylation of protein thiol groups protects reduced thiols from forming, or reforming after reduction, disulfide bonds or bridges. A selection of alkylation reagents are offered including 4-Vinylpyridine and OneQuant™ Iodoacetamide.

Proteolytic mapping is an effective method for identifying interaction sites between two or more proteins or protein subunits. A variety of reagents to facilitate this technique are available including the arginine specific endopeptidase SG-Arginine-C™, the serine endopeptidase SG-Chymotrypsin™, the serine endopeptidase SG-Glutamic-C™, and the highly specific serine protease SG-Lysine-C™.  Also available is the chemically methylated, TPCK treated affinity purified Mass Spectrometry Grade Trypsin.  Our trypsin is available as bovine or porcine and unlike other trypsin preparations, our Mass Spectrometry Grade Trypsin is highly stable.  As a result, it can be stored for a long period of time without any loss of activity.

Site selective modification of amino acid side chains is an important tool for analyzing natural systems, creating novel therapeutic conjugates, and understanding protein function. These modifications may inhibit side chain interactions or modify the charge to create more favorable reaction conditions. A variety of amino acid side chain modifiers are available from G-Biosciences, some of these agents include: the derivatizing agent DNFB for free thiols or alkylating, citraconic anyhdride which reacts with primary amines and blocks them by creating and amide linkage and a terminal carboxylateSATA which adds protected sulfhydryls to primary amines, Sulfo NHS which converts carboxyl groups to amine reactive sulfo NHS esters, and many more.

In addition to our protein cross-linking and protein modification reagents, a variety of accessories including SpinOUT™ Columns, Optimizer Buffer™, Tube-O-Reactor™, and Tube-O-DIALYZER™ are available to ensure researchers achieve optimal results.

The conjugation and modification reactions used to cross-link proteins or couple labels to proteins, such as biotin, enzymes, and fluorescent dyes, require certain conditions, including pH and chemical composition, for optimal conjugation. Many common buffers routinely used in laboratories have an i..
Oxidative Modification Kit is designed for the modification of glycoproteins to reactive aldehydes for amine- and hydrazide- labeling. Sodium metaperiodate, or sodium m-periodate, is a mild oxidant that is routinely used for the conversion of cis-glycol groups in carbohydrates to reactive aldehdye g..
G-Biosciences Protein Acetylation Kit is designed for modifying proteins by blocking their primary amines. The NHS ester group of Sulfo NHS Acetate reacts with primary amines of protein in non-amine containing buffers at pH 7-9. After reaction, the amine is irreversibly capped with an acyl group. M..
Reactive Amination Kit is designed to prepare amine-reactive esters of carboxylate groups for chemical labeling. Sulfo-NHS is used to generate amine reactive esters from carboxylate groups and is primarily used to increase the efficiency of the carbodiimide EDC cross‐linking.   Features: p..
SATA is used to add protected sulfhydryls to primary amines. Kit related to SATA is also available [Sulfhydration Kit With SATA] Features Chemical Name: N-Succinimidyl S-acetylthioacetate CAS Number: 76931-93-6 Molecular Weight: 245.25 Reacts primarily with primary amines ..
Sodium metaperiodate, or sodium m-periodate, is a mild oxidant that is routinely used for the conversion of cis-glycol groups in carbohydrates to reactive aldehdye groups (Figure 1).  The reactive aldehyde groups are used in chemical conjugation procedures or detection of carbohydrates.  F..
Sulfhydration Kit With SATA is designed to introduce sulfhydryls into proteins, peptides, antibodies and other molecules which are used in conjugation and labeling of proteins. SATA [N-Succinimidyly S-Acetylthioacetate] reagent in the kit introduces sulfhydryl groups in the proteins by reacting with..
Sulfhydration Kit With Traut's Reagent is designed for modifying primary amine group of proteins to sulfhydryl group using Traut’s Reagent. Traut’s Reagent or 2-Iminothiolane is a cyclic thioimidate compound that reacts with primary amines of proteins to introduce sulfhydryl groups ..
Sulfo NHS converts carboxyl groups to amine reactive sulfo NHS esters Kit related to Sulfo NHS is also available [Reactive Amination Kit]   Features Chemical Name: N-Hydroxysulfosuccinimide Reacts primarily with primary amines Water soluble Molecular weight: 217.13 &n..
Sulfo NHS Acetate blocks primary amines by acylation. Kits related to Sulfo NHS Acetate is also available [Protein Acetylation Kit]   Features Chemical Name: Sulfosuccinimidyl acetate Reacts primarily with primary amines Reacts at pH 7-9 Water soluble Molecular ..
Sulfo-SANPAH   N-Sulfosuccinimidyl-6-(4'-azido-2'-nitrophenylamino) hexanoate   Photoreactive Crosslinker   Sulfo-SANPAH is a water-soluble crosslinker with a long spacer-arm (18.2 angstrom) that contains an amine-reactive N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester and a photoact..
G-Biosciences water-soluble Bolton-Hunter Reagent (Sulfo-SHPP) conjugates tyrosine-like groups to end-terminal α-amino groups or ε-amino groups of lysine to increase the number of tyrosyl groups that can be iodinated by iodine-125 labeling procedures.   Radioactive iodine (..
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